Store word mips datapath

store word mips datapath 3 A Single-Cycle Data Path. Imm. This is done by addition. 24 in Patterson and Hennessey. such as lw (load word) and sw (store word). 6. ) Simplified MIPS - Datapath. ) These outputs must be stored in intermediate registers for future use. 0 1 8. (Only guaranteed to work with the Ackermann function: Reset. – Control: beq, j. Subset of MIPS. 12 A/L, lui, lw,sw. Some of them show a simple single-cycle datapath: for instance MARS plug-in MIPS X-Ray [17]. The control unit uses the operation field in the instruction to decide how to control the datapath by deciding which of CS/COE0447: Computer Organization and Assembly Language Datapath and Control Sangyeun Cho Dept. Memory Memory Organization Memory Organization So far we’ve learned: Instructions Summary Policy of Use Conventions MIPS MIPS ISA designed for pipelining All instructions are 32-bits Easier to fetch and decode in one cycle c. Control. data msg1: . Ex- 1011 0100 0111 1010 • MIPS: memory address of a word must be multiple of 4 (alignment restriction) • Big Endian:" leftmost byte is word address IBM 360/370, Motorola 68k, MIPS, Sparc, HP PA • Little Endian:" rightmost byte is word address Intel 80x86, DEC Vax, DEC Alpha (Windows NT) msb lsb 3 2 1 0 little endian byte 0 Activity 4 COMPLETED CS 365 DUE 8/22/ 0 1 7. Miscellaneous Instructions The multiply and divide unit produces its result in two additional registers, hi and lo. Which instruction does the green path represent? A R-type. : i0: R1 = 6 i1: R1 = 3 i2: R2 = R1 + 7 = 10. For stores, the source register of value to be stored. Homework: Start The memory address for a load or store is the sum of a register and an immediate. • Example: random logic control for 6-insn MIPS datapath. MIPS Instruction formats R-type format 6 5 5 5 5 6 src src dst Used by add, sub etc. Later we will Single-Cycle Datapath: lw register read. 5, B. Instr fetch Register read. 8. – For load word op = 35, for store word op = 43. Analyze implementation of each instruction to determine setting of control Store the word in register Rsrc1 into the possibly unaligned memory address Rsrc2 + imm. word -20 msg2: . IF for Load, Store, … 4 PC+4 is computed, stored back into the PC, stored in the IF/ID buffer although it will not be needed in a later stage for LW Instruction word is fetched from memory, and stored in the IF/ID buffer because it will be needed in the next stage. See Example:. 2. There is then an introduction to boolean algebra and digital logic, followed by a design of the MIPS datapath. 1. 3 Jump and add. Calculate the delay in the modified datapaths when performing instructions above. memory 0x12345678 then the MIPS assembler for this might be:- MIPS input. Datapath: Memory, registers, adders, ALU, and Datapath for lw Instruction 0 m u x 1. - R31 is used as the link register to return from a subroutine. 3 Load word (lw) and store word (sw) instructionsTwo more elements are needed to implement the sw- and lw-instructions: theData Memory and the Sign Extension Unit. 22 instructions. The datapath comprises of the elements that process data and addresses in the CPU – Registers, ALUs, mux’s, memories, etc. cusing on the hardware that is required to implement the following subset of MIPS R2000 instructions: Memory access instructions: lw, sw Arithmetic and logical instructions: add, addi, sub, and, or Branch instructions: beq, j We will approach the CPU design in two stages. ALU computes base plus offset from register file and instruction. Solution: MIPS code must be very carefully put together to efficiently use registers 32 registers in MIPS Why 32? Smaller is faster Each MIPS register is 32 bits wide Groups of 32 bits called a word in MIPS Assembly Variables: Registers (3/4) Registers are numbered from 0 to 31 Each register can be referred to by number or name Number references: Memory-reference instruction needs to access memory for load or store Arithmetic-logic instruction must write data to a register Branch instruction needs to change the pc for next instruction address based on comparison { Figure 5. The MIPS instruction that loads a word into a register is the lw instruction. 00 store word. Sum is used to access data memory. 1. Micro architecture Datapath Load/store words or store byte (sb) Each 32-bit words has 4 bytes, so the word address increments by 4. Figure 5. csv” like The MIPS datapath and control circuitry is shown in Patterson and Hennessy Figure 5. 2 LW and Beq. 1 Load word (lw) and store word (sw) instructionsDepartment of Electrical Engineering2. The store word instruction, sw , copies data from a register to memory. lw) is performed in 1 clock cycle. 3. data or . MIPS Datapath for R,I, and J-type Instruction Formats. Datapath Design ° How do we build hardware to implement the MIPS instructions? ° Add, LW, SW, Beq, Jump cps 104 10 The MIPS Instruction Formats ° All MIPS instructions are 32 bits long. Work in groups of up to two students 1 Objective In this project you will build a single-cycle processor. Control Th t l d th d t thThe control commands the datapath, memory, and I/O devices according to the it ti fthinstructions of the program. Linder M. ) Comments should start with #. word data is stored in the form of 32 Bits. Word. Note that in the following datapaths, the righthalf of registers or memory are shaded when they are being read. opcode rs rt rd shift amt function MIPS ALU Control - Load/Store Flow of load instruction: Instruction fetched, PC incremented. The Datapath of a MIPS processor can be described as logical layout of the processor. 1. MIPS data path for store word? Ask Question Asked 6 years, 10 months ago. 21). For each one: 1. 1-C. We will fill out the datapath and control logic for basic single cycle MIPS. Now, let’s look at a Verilog version of the MIPS processor intended for synthesis. s. • rt: For loads, the destination register. float, and . Datapath for Load and Store Operations. Most implementations of the MIPS architecture use a Harvard architecture, where there are separate memory modules for instructions, and data. In other words, for a 256-word RAM, the RAM address input would connect to (9 downto 2) of the 32-bit address. There are 32, 32-bit general purpose registers. It's syntax is: SW $source register's address, offset ( $destination register's address). Färber A. Each MIPS instruction must belong to one of these formats. 3. Register Writeback This five stage datapath is used to execute all MIPS instructions January 27, 2003 Basic MIPS Architecture 7 MIPS register file MIPS processors have 32 registers, each of which holds a 32-bit value. The operation code of the sub operation is 110, while the and operation has operation code 000. It is a popular computer architecture that is used in embedded processors. g. Single-cycle. This datapath can execute the basic instructions (load/store word, ALU operat ions and branches) in a single clock cycle. • beq, j. • Stage 2: decode to determine it is a sw,. takes up 32 bits – how do we keep it in lw instruction? For the MIPS insturction Load Word I have got the following Datapath: How does the datapath for the Instruction Load Upper Immediate looks like? vhdl mips. LOAD [--R1--] [--R2--] [--sign extend--] now number stored at R1 will be added to sign extend and the result will be an address pointing to a location in RAM. Its double of half word. In figure 5. Active 2 years, Mips datapath procedure for executing an AND instruction? 0. We aren’t implementing load/store byte instructions, but if we did, you would use the lower two bits to select which of the 4 bytes of the 32-bit word to use. The verilog code could be completely compiled by Quartus II. Register RAM-related instructions (lw/ sw) do not perform calculations Single Cycle MIPS Datapath Building Blocks. The 10AM class will meet in Dana 213. e. wr_enable. For the MIPS datapath shown below, several lines aremarked with “X”. Process. 1 with only one memory module is referred to as a von Neumann architecture. Instruction memory is read-only – a programmer cannot write into the instruction memory. Store. The additions to Figure 4. input instructionsfrom Memory 2. 3 Key elements of  The datapath elements in the MIPS implementation consist of two different types of Next, consider the MIPS load word (lw) and store word (sw) instructions,  2. If you find it helpful, like share and comment and don't for MIPS Multicycle Datapath logical division of states Read Address Instruction Memory Add PC 4 Write Data Read Addr 1 Read Addr 2 Write Addr Register File Read Data 1 Read Data 2 16 32 ALU Shift left 2 Add Data Address Write Data Read IFetch/Dec Dec/Exec Exec/Mem Data Mem/WB IF:IFetch ID:Dec EX:Execute MEM: MemAccess WB: WriteBack System Clock A datapath contains all the functional units and connections necessary to implement an instruction set architecture. Little Endian: least-significant byte at least address Apr 30, 2011 · 2. Components of the processor datapath: 1. – ALU: add, sub, and, or, slt. Harvard architecture uses separate memory for instruction and data. —For our single-cycle implementation, we use two separate memories, an ALU, some extra adders, and lots of multiplexers. This is what you set it to in Lab 2. Assemble datapath meeting the requirements – 4. A word generally means the number of bits that can be transferred at one time on the data bus, and stored in a register. The main memory is only accessed through load (copy value from memory to local register) and store (copy value from local register to memory) instructions. Control. This sounds similar to MIPS assembly language! — We use mnemonics like lw instead of binary opcodes like 100011. Imm lw rt, index(rs) rt load store Single Cycle Datapath. opcode rs rt rd shift amt function For the load word and store word instructions, we use the ALU to compute the memory address. Lw instruction includes: LW to perform a load word instruction. Datapaths. Ostale instrukcije se izvode slično (mult, div i dr). – Memory: Store result in register/memory if needed. 2. ALUOp Operation funct ALU function. Assume the Address selects the word to put on Data Out Write Enable = 1: address selects the memory word to be written via the Data In bus Clock input (CLK) The CLK input is a factor ONLY during write operation During read operation, behaves as a combinational logic block: Address valid => Data Out valid after “access time. Datapath. Schmid Supervisor(s): J. STEP 2 :  We're ready to look at an implementation of the MIPS simplified to contain only: – memory-reference instructions: lw, sw. 100 ps. alu_op[2:0] write_enable alu_src2 Introduction to the MIPS Implementation. 1 High level view of a mips implementation Logic convention and clocking The datapath of the sub and and operations are similar to the one decribed above. Eder Submitted: 06/07/07 We will look at all the datapath components in detail in this section. The book concludes with a description of the memory hierarchy, including cache memory, RAM, and virtual memory. XXXXXX add. Total time lw. The segments are arranged horizontally, and data flows from left to right, synchronously with the clock cycles (CC1 through CC7) [Maf01,MK98]. The ALU result for an address computation in stage 3 is needed as the memory address for lw or sw in stage 4. Since MIPS I is a 32-bit architecture, loading quantities fewer than 32 bits requires the datum to be either signed- or zero-extended to 32 bits. Aug 29, 2016 · Handout 04 – Single Single MIPS Datapath. You can also use positive or negative sign as its 32 bit. MemtoReg  Active Single-Cycle Datapath. 4. M[ADDR] = R[rs][31:0]. You will need to verify that it executes a given subset of the MIPS instruction set. f. Analyze instruction set => datapath requirements – 2. "You"mustuse" don’tcare"terms"where"possible. The clock cycle time of the single-cycle datapath is the  Compare pipelined datapath with single-cycle datapath. MIPS Instruction formats R-type format 6 5 5 5 5 6 src src dst Used by add, sub etc. Load/Store 4 31-26 rs 25-21 rt 20-16 Branch (beq) address 15-0 Base register for load/store is always rs in position 25-21 55 Main Control Unit • Use fields from instruction to generate control – We will “connect” the fields of the instruction to the datapath via the main control unit 0 31-26 rs 25-21 rt 20-16 rd 15-11 shamt 10-6 funct CSE 30321 – Lecture 10 – The MIPS Datapath! University of Notre Dame! Review:" Derivation of Single Cycle Datapath! CSE 30321 – Lecture 10 – The MIPS Datapath! University of Notre Dame! Instruction Word 32 Next Addr Logic Instruction Fetch Unit! •! Fetch the instruction: mem[PC] , •! Update the program counter: –!sequential code This is a block diagram of the major modules of the Mini MIPS, zerodetect is not included because it is small and fairly trivial. ❑ Simplified to contain only: ○ memory-reference instructions: lw, sw. — The data inputs and outputs are 32-bits wide. 00 load word xxxxxx add. PC ← PC + 4 inst. • Stage 1: fetch this instruction, increment PC. These control signals controls the behavior of the datapath. alu_src2. Each MIPS instruction must belong to one of these formats. ALUinB opcode add addi lw sw beq. More registers might seem better, but there is a limit to the goodness. To start, we will look at the datapath elements needed by every instruction. — Each MIPS instruction corresponds to a 32-bit instruction word. – Arithmetic: add, sub, addi,slt. 8: The datapath in operation for a branch-on-equal instruction (COD Figure 4. • Datapath element is a unit used to operate on or store data within a processor • Processor datapath is made up of multiple datapath elements • Registers, ALUS, multiplexers, memories, etc. R-type: 3 registers 6 5 5 5 5 6 R op rs rt rd shamt MIPS instruction that loads a word into a register is The store word instruction is sw. kdata directive. – lw, sw. 13. Following execution, register 2 should contain the value 10. out[31:0] 1. • sw $r3,16($r1) # Mem[r1+16]=r3. We will be examining an implementation that includes a subset of the core MIPS instruction set: The memory-reference instructions load word (lw) and store word (sw) The arithmetic-logical instructions add, sub, AND, OR, and slt The instructions branch equal (beq) and jump (j), which we add last Single Cycle MIPS{Lite Processor in Verilog Due Date: Tuesday, 11-16-2004, at 23:59:59, via turnin. For a store word (SW) instruction, RegWrite would be _____. A destination register(d) where the word would be loaded. MIPS Green Sheet (Bucknell Only) Hello everyone, I will look into changing the activity submission to gitlab by Friday. Friday is an extra lab-ish day, to continue Project 1 work. Datapath Monitor [monitor2b] Written in VHDL, this monitor's purpose is to report the state of the datapath at every falling clock edge. • No multiplication. A Basic MIPS Implementation. Datapath i kontrolna jedinica dizajnirane su posebno za sljedeće tipove instrukcija: instrukcije vezane za memoriju: load word (lw) i store word (sw) aritmetičko-logičke instrukcije add, sub, and, or i slt instrukcije uslovnog skoka (BRANCH) beq, i bezuslovnog skoka (j) na kraju. store word: sw register_source, RAM_destination. In Fig. LW. – Branches: jump, beq. Single-Cycle Datapath: lw. 2 Datapath Design Implement the needed components in Course project of Computer Architecture, designed by single-cycle datapath. - The program counter (pc) specifies the address of the next opcode. Which data? • memory: lw, sw. overflow zero negative. MIPS is an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages. MIPS ISA and Single Cycle Datapath Computer Science 104 cps 104 2 Outline of Today’s Lecture Homework #5 The MIPS Instruction Set Datapath and timing for Reg-Reg Operations Datapath for Logical Operations with Immediate Datapath for Load and Store Operations Datapath for Branch and Jump Operations single cycle datapath for a subset of the MIPS architecture. f. XXXXXX add. Load. Word lw. - DIA This project demonstrates the datapath design in software for the MIPS instruction set. Words are always stored in consecutive bytes, starting with an address that is divisible by 4. R type instructions: and, or, add, sub, slt; Memory instructions: lw, sw; Branch instructions: beq. Unidades funcionales. 2 (vonNeumann) Processor Organization Controlneeds to 1. – arithmetic-logical instructions: add,  following instructions. MIPS Architecture Based Single Cycle Select the datapath elements each We will implement the following subset of MIPS core instructions. We will try to set that up Thursday. 1 32-BIT DATAPATH A 32-bit MIPS (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) requires a 32-bit datapath. data a: . R[rt] = M[ADDR][31:0] sw. One register is read. 3 MIPS Implementation A subset of MIPS is going to be implemented The memory reference instructions load word (lw) and store word (sw) The R-Type instructions add, sub, and, or The branch (beq), and jump (j) instructions COMP 273 13 - MIPS datapath and control 1 Feb. For the R-type instructions, the ALU needs to perform one of the five actions (AND, OR, subtract, add, or set on less than), depending on the value of the 6-bit funct (or function) field in the low-order bits of the instruction (refer to the instruction formats). Computer Architecture, Data Path and Control. Step 1: Analyze instruction set to determine datapath requirements – Meaning of each instruction is given by register transfers – Datapathmust include storage element for ISA registers – Datapathmust support each register transfer Step 2: Select set of datapathcomponents & establish clock methodology MIPS Instruction Types Arithmetic/Logical • R‐type: result and two source registers, shift amount • I‐type: 16‐bit immediate with sign/zero extension Memory Access • load/store between registers and memory • word, half‐word and byte operations Control flow • conditional branches: pc‐relative addresses The load/store datapath uses instructions such as lw $t1, offset($t2), where offset denotes a memory address offset applied to the base address in register $t2. This chapter may be omitted without loss of continuity. •Update the PC to hold the address of the next instruction. 1) Memory-reference instructions (used in I type datapath) Include instructions such as: lw (load word) sw (store word) 2) Arithmetic-logical instructions (used in R type datapath) add (for addition) sub (for subtraction) 3) Branch and Jump instructions (used in J type datapath) bne (branch not equal) h. 010. 1. The lw instruction reads from memory and writes into register $t1. I wanted to ask that why do we Sign Extend the 16 bit offset (in Single Cycle Datapath) before sending it to the ALU in case of Store Word? Consider the MIPS “store word” instruction as implemented on the datapath above (Figure 4. e. Note: we perform PC+4because MIPS instructions are word-aligned. University of Ulster at Jordanstown University of Applied Sciences, Augsburg Master of Engineering VLSI Design Project Report Processor Implementation in VHDLAccording to Computer Organisation & Design by David A. It contains elements such as memories, registers, Handout 04 – Single Single MIPS Datapath. Register-to-register arithmetic instructions use the R-type format. 2018년 12월 9일 Datapath란 CPU에서 데이터와 주소를 처리하는 요소들을 말한다. DATAPATH. E None of the above  CSE 30321 – Lecture 10 – The MIPS Datapath. SW Instruction. 2 shows the structural version of the MIPS datapath. The Datapath include components of the processor that perform arithmetic operations and holds data. The sample SW instruction demonstrated in the datapath above is SW $2, ($5) . 7 Step 1a: The MIPS-lite Subset for today ° ADD and SUB • addU rd, rs, rt • subU rd, rs, rt ° OR Immediate: • ori rt, rs, imm16 ° LOAD and STORE Word • lw rt, rs, imm16 361 datapath. Or, view source code (now also on Github). 5 Memory From outside memory is 256 words of 8-bits each zSeparate writedata and memdata ports Internally 64 words of 32-bits each zUpper 6 bits of adr used to select which word zLower 2 bits of adr used to select which byte At initialization, loaded from a file named “memfile. ” Step 3: Assemble DataPath MIPS Assembly Instructions Page 3 of 3 automatic alignment of . LW Instruction The LW instruction loads data from the data memory through a specified address , with a possible offset , to the #copy word (4 bytes) at source RAM location to destination register. 4 CIS 371 (Martin): Single-Cycle Datapath 4 Motivation: Implementing an ISA • Datapath: performs computation (registers, ALUs, etc. 19 Managing complexity It looks like all we’ve done is devise a new notation that makes it easier Building a datapath incrementally • Datapath: elements that process data and addresses in the CPU • Datapath will execute one instruction in one clock cycle • Each datapath element can only do one function at a time • Hence, we need separate instruction and data memories • Use multiplexers where alternate data sources are used for EECC550 - Shaaban #4 Selected Chapter 5 For More Practice Exercises Winter 2005 1-19-2006 • We wish to add a variant of lw (load word) let’s call it LWR to the single cycle datapath in Figure 5. For a store word (SW) instruction, MemRead would be_____. the data from RAM is then stored in R2. The data  We now look at a Single cycle processor: lw rt, rs, imm16; mem[PC] Fetch the instruction from memory; Addr <- R[rs] + Datapath for Store Operations. Page 4. This project If it is a load or store word instruction, the approprate addresses are computed by the ALU. 1 [15] Describe the effect that a single stuck-at-0 faults (i. First, we have instruction  This simple datapath is of a single-cycle nature. It is roughly a combination of Figures 4. In the case of MIPS, a word is 32 bits, that is, 4 bytes. This diagram is also available as a PDF document here. • lw, sw. DrMIPS [13] simulator let the user choose between execution in single-cycle or pipelined mode in the sw 00 store word XXXXXX add 0010 beq 01 branch equal XXXXXX subtract 0110 R-type 10 add 100000 add 0010 MIPS Pipelined Datapath WB MEM Right-to-left flow leads to We begin by looking at the MIPS ISA before looking at the datapath components. 0010 sw. Fig. 010. 28. Load/Store style instruction set data addressing modes- immediate & indexed branch addressing  16 Aug 2011 4) Single Cycle Data Path and Control. Lab3 thiết kế bộ xử lý mips single cycle TRƯỜNG ĐH BÁCH KHOA ĐÀ NẴNG KHOA ĐIỆN TỬ - VIỄN THÔNG LAB3: THIẾT KẾ BỘ XỬ LÝ MIPS SINGLE CYCLE ĐỒ ÁN VI XỬ LÝ VÀ MÁY TÍNH NHÓM – 10DTLT Yêu cầu thiết kế Thiết kế 32-bit MIPS Single-Cycle CPU đơn giản CPU thực lệnh : LW, SW, J, BNE, XORI, ADD, SUB JR SLT Xây dựng project có sử A word generally means the number of bits that can be transferred at one time on the data bus, and stored in a register. 010. Shown earlier for the datapath jump instruction, the instruction decoding and store instructions in his letter from the actions required to address. 7 The simple datapath for the MIPS architecture combines the elements required by the different instruction classes. Design basic framework that is needed. syscall. To illustrate the relevant control signals, we will show the route that is taken through the datapath by R- type, lw, sw and beq instructions. issue signalsto control the information flow between the Datapath components and to control what operations they perform 3. data msg1: . 2 from textbook): swR4, -12(R3)//Memory[ Reg[3] + signextended(-12) ] <-Reg[4] Circle the correct value 0 or 1 for the control signals (a-d) and circle whether each of the three muxes (e-g) selects its upper input, lower input, or don't care. 00 store word xxxxxx add. • We will implement the following subset of MIPS core instructions – lw, sw – add, sub, and, or, slt – beq, j Full Machine Datapath – Lab 6. First, we design the datapath, i. The three instruction formats: • Memory word is selected by: Datapath for Store Operations In this project, both the datapath and control unit need to be implemented. – Memory references: lw, sw. text main: la $4, a Full Machine Datapath – Lab 6 wr_enable In this lab, you will begin constructing a datapath for the mini-MIPS CPU. The operation codes determine the format The MIPS ISA Processor State 32 32-bit GPRs, R0 always contains a 0 32 single precision FPRs, may also be viewed as 16 double precision FPRs FP status register, used for FP compares & exceptions PC, the program counter some other special registers Data types 8-bit byte, 16-bit half word 32-bit word for integers A single-cycle MIPS We consider a simple version of MIPS that uses Harvard architecture. – add   27 Oct 2014 15. B lw. Memory LOAD and STORE Word. The SW and LW instructions are defined as: SW performs the operation MEM [$s + offset] = $t, but in the data-path it looks like they have performed the operation MEM [Data ($s)+ offset] = $t , because instead of taking the value $s as an input into the ALU it took in the data stored in $s. Friday is an extra lab-ish day, to continue Project 1 work. This is done by addition. 2 Multicycle MIPS datapath implementation Reading assignment – PH: 5. Alex Brandt Chapter 3: CPU Control & Datapath , Part 1: Intro to MIPS Thursday February 14, 2019 8 / 44 El circuito de Logisim de este datapath simple pueden encontrarlo en GitHub. SW. 1 Mon 2014/06/23 MIPS (originally an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture(ISA) developed by MIPS Computer Systems (now MIPS Technologies). — The outputs are values for the blue control signals in the datapath. , regardless of which it should be, the signal is always 0) would have on the multiplexors in the single-cycle datapath shown in the following figure. The instruction's equivalent in binary is: PIPELINED DATAPATHFOR LOAD WORD Let’s walk through the datapathusing the load word instruction as an example. The LB instruction returns a sign-extended byte. 8, C. 4 Mar 2010 Lecture 11: A Simple Datapath & Pipelining and,or,slt. Three lines are cut in the image, the consequences of eachsevered line are as follows: Cut 1 severs the line between the registers and the Datapath vs. #copy byte at source RAM location to low-order byte of destination register, # and sign-extend to higher-order bytes . j,jal. 200ps. Please enter MIPS code below to see the assembler output. dat” zWhose format is as a “. R[rt] ← MEM(R[rs] + sx(Im16);. • Limited integer instructions. Store Word and Decrement swdec Rt, offset(Rs) #Mem[Reg[Rs] + sign extended offset] = Reg[Rt], Reg[Rs] = Reg[Rs] – 4 What if you were to add (g) and (h) simultaneously to the datapaths? Datapath Timing 1. 0010 sw. 0 1 Figure 4. Single cycle examples Physical and Logical Design of Datapath and Control SW. 27 Mar 2017 Single Cycle Processing - Datapath not my own but i would like to Datapath of STORE 54KICT, IIUM Single Cycle Processor Design sw rt,  16 Sep 2015 Adding the Data Path for lw & sw Instruction Implements: lw $t1, offset_value($t2) sw $t1, offset_value($t2) The offset value is a 16-bit signed  16 Feb 2000 of operations), Datapath (registers, arithmetic and logic unit, buses). C sw. Combinational control Assignment: Datapath design and Control Unit design using HDL. 00 load word xxxxxx add. We will see this in the next section. Abstract View of MIPS 2/6/2017 ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 4 8 U Data Register # Register # Load and store word instructions, for MIPS. ° Memory word is selected by: • Write Enable = 0: Address selects the word to put on the Data Out bus • Write Enable = 1: Address selects the memory word to be written via the Data In bus ° Clock input (CLK) • The CLK input is a factor ONLY during write operation • During read operation, behaves as a combinational logic • All MIPS instructions are 32 bits long. The 10AM class will meet in Dana 213. 3 uses the datapath module to specify the MIPS CPU. Only one addressing mode is supported: base + displacement. (usually called LOAD and STORE Word lw rt, rs Overview of MIPS Instruction Micro-oper 26 Sep 2005 64-bit word for double precision floating point. Control signals such as ALUsrc etc are shown in blue writing. This design is for a 32-bit single-cycle processor using the Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14. How should one store a word (say, a register holding a number) in 4 bytes? CSE 462 mips-verilog. 2'b11: A normal word write. Spring 2017. Load/Store Instruction 위한 Datapath 추가 (1) Load instruction : lw - I type : { op(6), rs(5), rt(5), imm(16) } Datapath Walkthroughs (3/3). e. • To simplify things a bit well just look at a few instructions: – memory-reference: lw, sw. ë We need a common language to discuss the datapath and give concrete examples. word, . 8. It is similar to the MIPS disassembler as done in CS61C: it will "read" the 32-bit instruction, decode it and break it down into the proper fields, and print the instruction that is to be executed. word 0 . 6, which are neede d to implement branches, are highlighted. 1 Load Word (LW) and Store Word (SW) Instruction. 5. ▫. The sw instruction reads from register $t1 and writes into memory. We will build a MIPS datapath incrementally. — op is the instruction opcode, and func specifies a particular arithmetic operation (see the back of the textbook). Dec 11, 2012 · MIPS Load/Store I-Type Instruction Fields • op: Opcode, operation of the instruction. #store word in source register into RAM destination Datapath Datapath The component of the processor that performs arithmetic operations – P&H Datapath The collection of state elements, computation elements, and interconnections that together provide a conduit for the flow and transformation of data in the processor during execution. register $2 then the MIPS assembler for this is :-Possibility 2 : j is stored in memory, i. • rs: The register containing memory base address. The MIPS Subset. word 10 b: . Load/store operations In order to illustrate the load and store operation, we execute the following assembly code----- For example, to write the value 3 to register 1, (which already contains a 6), and then add 7 to register 1 and store the result in register 2, i. Datapath. 지금부터는 lw , sw  2016년 11월 5일 (2) R type Instruction datapath. 2 SW REG 1 REG 2 STORE ADDRESS OFFSET 31 26 25 21 20 16 15 11 10 6 5 0 Datapath A datapath is a collection of functional units, such as arithmetic logic units or multipliers, that pppgperform data processing operations. word 30 aggressive than the "natural" 5 stages MIPS uses Analyze instruction set to determine datapath STORE Word – lw rt,rs,imm16 – sw rt,rs,imm16 MIPS I has instructions that load and store 8-bit bytes, 16-bit halfwords, and 32-bit words. e. •Execute the instruction. The control lines, datapath units, and connections that are active are highlighted. first the datapath; then the control logic. An offset which is a 16-bit unsigned integer, necessary to make a memory address. • No floating point. In . •Decode the instruction. sw 00 store word XXXXXX add 0010 beq 01 branch equal XXXXXX subtract 0110 R-type 10 add 100000 add 0010 MIPS Pipelined Datapath WB MEM Right-to-left flow leads to 2. Apr 30, 2011 · Mips implementation 1. check out the Datapath for instruction store word (sw) and execute it on Datapath sheet and what is the working of sw & which format it uses for representation. A typical artifact of RISC architectures (such as MIPS) is the "load upper immediate" ( lui ) instruction, which is used to Sep 03, 2013 · Both “lw” and “sw” (store word) belong to I-format. copy word (4 bytes) at source RAM location to destination register lb register_destination, RAM_source copy byte at source RAM location to low-order byte of destination register, and sign-extend to higher-order bytes store word: sw register_source, RAM_destination store word in source register into RAM destination 3 Memory Address • The compiler organizes data in memory… it knows the location of every variable (saved in a table)… it can fill in the appropriate mem-address for load-store instructions datapath MIPS Datapath I: Single-Cycle Input is either register (R-type) or sign-extended lower half of instruction (load/store) Combining the datapathsfor R-type instructions and load/stores using two multiplexors Data is either from ALU (R-type) or memory (load) Fig. control instruction sequencing Fetch Exec Decode CPU Control Datapath Memory Devices Input Output Datapathneeds to • Datapath storage elements • MIPS Datapath Mem CPU I/O • MIPS Control System software App App App CIS 371 (Martin): Single-Cycle Datapath 3 Readings • P&H • Sections 4. 00 load word. Use (268501056)10 = (10010040)26 as the base address of the array. Hennessy Author(s): M. The control unit controls the operations performed in these stages. See Example:. 7. 30 Jun 2019 check out the Datapath for instruction store word (sw) and execute it on Datapath sheet and what is the working of sw & which format it uses for  add, sub, and, or, slt. Each four bit is at address divisible by 2. The three instruction formats: • R-type • I-type • J-type ° The different fields are: • op: operation of the instruction Apr 15, 2010 · (Example: The instruction word fetched in stage 1 determines the destination of the register write in stage 5. 본 절에서 MIPS 데이터패스를 점진적으로 Datapath for load/store Instructions ALU control lw. LOAD and STORE Word. — MIPS programs must be assembled to produce real machine code. The major buses run from the datapath to the general registers, reading A or B from the registers and writing to the registers, and from the datapath to the 8-bit ALU that includes source 1, source 2 from two control • We will design a simplified MIPS processor Datapath& Control Design. A MIPS instruction is 32 bits (always). Nos interesan las siguientes instrucciones: Instrucciones de referencia a memoria: load word y store word. To read from the data memory, set Memory read =1 To write into the data memory, set Memory write =1 It will use the lower two bytes of the write data input and store it in the correct location. CENG3420 L06. Most of the signals can be generated from the instruction opcode alone, and not the entire 32-bit word. Instruction Analysis This simple datapath is of a single-cycle nature. 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits. Control Logic •Datapath is the collection of HW components and their connection in a processor –Determines the static structure of processor •Control logic determines the dynamic flow of data between the components –E. The offset and base register combine to give memory address. What ALU operation (addition, subtraction , multiply, shift or none) is performed for the sw (store word) instruction within our MIPS 5-stage pipelined datapath? Expert Answer Previous question Next question LOAD and STORE Word BRANCH op rs rt rd shamt funct 31 26 21 16 11 6 0 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits MIPS- Datapath Page: 11 Register File The SW instruction stores data to a specified address on the data memory with a possible offset, from a. Instruction Decode 3. DATAPATH •Fetch the instruction at the address in PC. 46 Building a datapath incrementally • Datapath: elements that process data and addresses in the CPU • Datapath will execute one instruction in one clock cycle • Each datapath element can only do one function at a time • Hence, we need separate instruction and data memories • Use multiplexers where alternate data sources are used for MIPS Steps •Get an instructionfrom memory using the Program Counter (PC) •Read oneor tworegisters each instruction wOne register: addi, lw wTwo registers: add, sub, slt, sw, beq •All instructions use ALUafter reading regs •Some instructions also access Memory •Write result to Register file An Example: MIPS From the Harris/Weste book Based on the MIPS-like processor from the Hennessy/Patterson book MIPS Architecture Example: subset of MIPS processor architecture Drawn from Patterson & Hennessy MIPS is a 32-bit architecture with 32 registers Consider 8-bit subset using 8-bit datapath FIGURE 4. R[ rt] = SEXT(M[ADDR][7:0]) Convert C code into MIPS assembly . ALU control lw. [15 marks] store A + B in the register $ s3 and if there is an overflow branch to a sw $t0, 40($s0). 00 store word xxxxxx add. - The value of register R0 is always zero. Which instructions (R-type, Imme, load, store, and branch), if any, would NOT work? Load/Store 4 31-26 rs 25-21 rt 20-16 Branch (beq) address 15-0 16-bit offset for branch equal, load, and store always in 15-0 72 Main Control Unit • Use fields from instruction to generate control – We will “connect” the fields of the instruction to the datapath via the main control unit 0 31-26 rs 25-21 rt 20-16 rd 15-11 shamt 10-6 March 3, 2003 A single-cycle MIPS processor 8 Encoding R-type instructions A few weeks ago, we saw encodings of MIPS instructions as 32-bit values. g. 13. Byte lb. MIPS data path for store word? Anabel Strosin posted on 23-07-2020 mips Based on this figure, executing the SW instruction would cause these values to be assigned to the signals labeled in blue: COMP 273 Winter 2012 13 - MIPS datapath and control 1 Mar. half, . MIPS ISA Review. Slide 8. Analyze instruction set architecture (ISA) ⇒ datapath requirements – meaning of each instruction is given by the data transfers (register transfers) – datapath must include storage element for ISA registers – datapath must support each data transfer 2. Step 1a: The MIPS-lite Subset • ADD, SUB, AND, OR – add rd, rs, rt – sub rd, rs, rt – and rd, rs,rt – or rd,rs,rt • LOAD and STORE Word – lw rt, rs, imm16 – sw rt, rs, imm16 • BRANCH: – beq rs, rt, imm16 op rs rt rd shamt funct 31 26 21 16 11 6 0 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits op rs rt immediate 31 26 21 16 0 6 In this video we are going to check out the Mips datapath for instrcution Branch on Equal (BEQ). Here it is: Memory registers 6 5 The MIPS-lite Subset • ADDU and SUBU •addu rd,rs,rt •subu rd,rs,rt • OR Immediate: •ori rt,rs,imm16 • LOAD and STORE Word •lw rt,rs,imm16 •sw rt,rs,imm16 • BRANCH: •beq rs,rt,imm16 op rs rt rd shamt funct 31 26 21 16 11 6 0 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits op rs rt immediate 31 26 21 16 0 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 16 bits How does the Store Word (SW) and Load Word (LW) instructions work, MIPS. 3 Bui Dh lding a D Datapath a Elements that process data and addresses tapath in the CPU • Memories, registers, ALUs, … We will build a MIPS datapath incrementally considering only a subset of instructions To start, we will look at 3 elements Chapter 4 —The Processor —6 Partitioning of the MIPS single-cycle datapath developed previously, with replication in space, to form a pipeline processor that computes four lw instructions. 01 branch equal. 레지스터, ALU, MUX, 메모리 등이 Datapath라 할 수 있다. For load word and store word instructions, we use the ALU to compute _____. x86: 1- to 17-byte instructions ! Few and regular instruction formats ! Can decode and read registers in one step ! Load/store addressing ! Can calculate address in 3rd stage, access memory in 4th stage ! Datapath and control unit Control unit Controls the components of the datapath determines how data moves through the datapath receives condition signals from the components sends control signals to the components switches between buses with multiplexers Multiplexer – component for choosing between buses X A B out select 9/24 Store result from register to memory ! Details: ! Memory is byte addressed ! Each address identifies an 8-bit byte ! Words are aligned in memory ! Word addresses must be a multiple of 4 ! MIPS is Big Endian ! Most-significant byte at least address of a word ! c. 24 page 314. "" MOVZ RegDst We will examine two different implementations of the MIPS instruction set o A simplified version o A more realistic pipelined version A Basic MIPS implementation We will be examining an implementation that includes a subset of the core MIPS instruction set: o Memory-reference instructions: load word (lw) and store word (sw) Solution: MIPS code must be very carefully put together to efficiently use registers 32 registers in MIPS Why 32? Smaller is faster Each MIPS register is 32 bits wide Groups of 32 bits called a word in MIPS Assembly Variables: Registers (3/4) Registers are numbered from 0 to 31 Each register can be referred to by number or name Number references: A Real MIPS Datapath (CNS T0) Summary • 5 steps to design a processor – 1. Physical Differences between single-cycle and multicycle datapath. Shift left 2. ! 3" " " " c)"Generate"the"control"signals"for"movz. 7 Step 1a: The MIPS-lite Subset for today ° ADD and SUB • addU rd, rs, rt • subU rd, rs, rt ° OR Immediate: • ori rt, rs, imm16 ° LOAD and STORE Building a Datapath §4. 21 Apr 2013 How does the Store Word(SW) and Load Word(LW) instructions work, MIPS SW performs the operation MEM[$s + offset] = $t, but in the data-  Question 5 ( 25 points) ( 20 mins) [Datapath and control] We wish to add a variant of the lw( load word ) instructionto the single-cycle datapath, which increments  Single-Cycle Datapath/ Multi-Cycle Datapath Adding instructions Load Word Register (uses R instruction format) lwr Rt, Rd (Rs) Store Word and Decrement. instruction as either aluout or not. ° Datapath Today's Topic: Design a Single Cycle Processor. lb register_destination, RAM_source. MIPS datapath implementation – Register File, Instruction memory, Data memory Instruction interpretation and execution. 17 the main control unit is added. e. UTCS 352, Lecture 11. The MIPS Subset (We can’t implement them all!) ° ADD and subtract • add rd, rs, rt • sub rd, rs, rt ° OR Immediate: • ori rt, rs, imm16 ° LOAD and STORE • lw rt, rs, imm16 • sw rt, rs, imm16 ° BRANCH: • beq rs, rt, imm16 ° JUMP: • j target op target address 31 26 0 6 bits 26 bits MIPS ISA is designed for pipelining: • All instructions are 32-bits: easier to fetch and decode in one cycle (x86: 1- to 17-byte instructions) • Few and regular instruction format: can decode and read registers in one step • Load/store addressing: can calculate address in 3rd stage, access memory in 4th stage Head’s Up Last week’s material Designing a MIPS single cycle datapath This week’s material and next week’s More on single cycle datapath design and exam review Reading assignment – PH: 5. – Memory-reference: lw, sw. This version also demonstrates another approach to implementing the control unit, as well as some optimizations that rely RAM. 3) •Datapath vElements that process data and addresses in the CPU o Registers, ALUs, mux’s, memories, … •We will build a MIPS datapathincrementally vRefining the overview design (12) High Level Description •Single instruction single data stream model of execution vSerial execution model •Commonly known as the The Plasma CPU is based on the MIPS I(TM) instruction set. double directives until the next . D beq. The jump instruction is also supported. Para ilustrar el datapath de MIPS vamos a concentrarnos en un subconjunto de las instrucciones. Patterson and John L. 1. source register. I-type format 6 5 5 16 base dst offset Used by lw (load word), sw (store word) etc There is one more format: the J-type format. Load Byte and Load Half . Memory. 1 the datapath elements are black in colour. Dst. The Datapath with all the modules for different implementations of the MIPS instruction Datapath- 13. Logical Register Transfers. 1, 2012 • ALU computes sum of base address and sign-extended offset; result is sent to Memory • word is read from Memory and written into a register (end of clock cycle) Data path forstoreword (sw) The data path for swis slightly different from lw. MIPS Instruction Encoding (reminder). 17 and 4. MIPS Lw Program Example 4 361 datapath. Load word is a good instruction to start with because it is active in every stage of the pipelined datapath. load / store lw/lh/lb, sw/sh/sb • J-type jump j, jal, jalr bits type 6 5 5 5 5 6 MIPS CPU: Simple Datapath. There are also memory access instructions, load word and store word (LW and SW),  Goal: Implement a subset of core instructions from the MIPS instruction set, given Single cycle datapath: An instruction (e. In the case of MIPS, a word is 32 bits, that is, 4 bytes. See also: MIPhpS, the online MIPS simulator. It can also be used to initialize an Array. Building a Datapath(4. alu_op[2:0] A[31:0] B[31:0] 0. Execution (ALU) 4. halfword 'A'. 3 MIPS Multicycle Datapath. 4 The data memory is used by lw and sw instructions, so the answer is: a. ❑ We're ready to look at an implementation of the MIPS. We will try to set that up Thursday. A base register. Register write. Each must specify a register and a memory address. of Computer Science University of Pittsburgh A simple MIPS We will desi g n a sim p le MIPS p rocessor that su pp orts a small gp p pp instruction set with Memory access instructions lw (load word) and sw (store word) Arithmetic-logic instructions The MIPS Subset • R-type –add rd, rs, rt –sub, and, or, slt • LOAD and STORE –lw rt, rs, imm16 –sw rt, rs, imm16 • BRANCH: –beq rs, rt, imm16 op rs rt rd shamt funct 31 26 21 16 11 6 0 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits op rs rt immediate 31 26 21 16 0 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 16 bits op rs rt displacement 31 26 21 16 0 6 MIPS datapath implementation – Register File, Instruction memory, Data memory Instruction interpretation and execution. Instrucciones lógicas y aritméticas: add MIPS is a load/store architecture, meaning that all operations are performed on values found in local registers. Three types of MIPS Instructions . Select set of datapath components & establish clock methodology – 3. 11 Page 352 Animating the Datapath: R-type Instruction add rd,rs,rt 16 5 5 For the MIPS insturction Load Word I have got the following Datapath: How does the datapath for the Instruction Load Upper Immediate looks like? Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and Spring 2012 EECS150 - Lec07-MIPS Page How to Design a Processor: step-by-step 1. The register is not changed. Reg. – No ALU 3 op rs rt. opcode. Control Unit generates control signals in order to direct the processor operation under different situations. Instruction Fetch 2. Branch eq MIPS datapath with the control unit: input to control is the 6-bit instruction. the memory address by addition For the R-type instructions, the ALU needs to perform one of the five actions (AND, OR, subtract, add, or set on less than), depending on MIPS CPU: Simple Datapath CptS 260 Introduction to Computer Architecture Week 3. 16 bits rs rt. Dva WB: Write result back to register – Ghi kết quả trả về thanh ghi Jan2015 Computer Architecture - MIPS 39 NKK-HUST Hiệu năng của đường ống n Giả thiết thời gian cho các công đoạn: n 100ps với đọc hoặc ghi thanh ghi n 200ps cho các công đoạn khác n Thời gian của datapath đơn chu kỳ với một A Basic MIPS Implementation • MIPS 32-bit architecture has 32-bit instruction size and 32-bit data bus width. Describe in words the negative consequence of cuttingthis line relative to the working unmodified processor. 5 hours ago · MIPS 1(a): Using MARS (MIPS assembly simulator), write a program with comments that stores words in a RAM array using the instruction sw as specified in the data table below. Instruction Memory: To store the instructions of a program. f. I-type format 6 5 5 16 base dst offset Used by lw (load word), sw (store word) etc There is one more format: the J-type format. Activity 04 – MIPS Encoding and Jump Control. 2. 1 – 4. 22, 2016 control signals are set up for ALU operation (see next lecture) ALU computes sum of base address and sign-extended o set; result is sent to Memory word is read from Memory and written into a register (end of clock cycle) Now, we shall discuss the implementation of the datapath. 0010 beq. Branch equal 01 branch equal. Characteristics of LW MIPS Instruction. Memory Access 5. Storage Element: Idealized Memory ♦ Memory (idealized) One input bus: Data In One output bus: Data Out ♦ Memory word is selected by: Address selects the word to put on Data Out Write Enable = 1: address selects the memory word to be written via the Data In bus ♦ Clock input (CLK) The CLK input is a factor ONLY during write operation CS420/520 Homework Assignment 3: Datapath DP. 4 The datapath diagram for the MIPS architecture shown in Figure 1. 4 Set Less Than. Processor All MIPS instructions are 32 bits long. I am learning MIPS 32 bit. 3 Buil Datapath Elements that process data and addresses ding a Da in the CPU Registers, ALUs, mux ’s, memories, … tapath muxs We will build a MIPS datapath incrementally Refining the overview design Chapter 4 — The Processor — 12 The execution of sw would follow the following steps in your diagram: Instruction is read and decoded from the PC in the Instruction Memory subcircuit. — Register addresses are 5 bits long. Activity 04 – MIPS Encoding and Jump Control. Today's Topic: Design a Single Cycle Processor. • We will incrementally build a data path for a simplified MIPS processor • Examine how each datapath element is used “MIPS” -A "Typical" RISC ♦ 32-bit fixed length instruction (3 formats) ♦ Memory access only via load/store instructions ♦ 32 32-bit GPR (R0 contains zero) ♦ 32 32-bit FPR –16 64-bit double-precision • DP uses a pair ♦ 3-address, reg-reg arithmetic instruction; registers in same place in instruction format ♦ Single address Oct 28, 2020 · Computer organization and architecture; internal representation of programs and data; assembly language programming; addressing techniques; macros; assemblers; linking; input/output concepts. This web presentation is a top-down introduction to the MIPS Single-Cycle Datapath/Control diagram (the fifth menu item to the left). 10 The week after Exam #2 material Finish multicycle MIPS Building a Datapath §4. ALU op Memory access. 4, B. "The"values"should"be"0,"1,"or"X(don’tcare)"terms. A subset of MIPS is implemented. The instructions lets you specify any byte within the four-byte word (using the last 2 bits of the address). MIPS Green Sheet (Bucknell Only) Hello everyone, I will look into changing the activity submission to gitlab by Friday. clk reset. Instruction Implementation 1. Words are always stored in consecutive bytes, starting with an address that is divisible by 4. 1. The SW instruction stores data to a specified address on the data memory with a possible offset,  1 Mar 2012 You are familiar with how MIPS programs step from one instruction to the next, and how The data path for sw is slightly different from lw. 4. 20 % + 10% not change). We shall construct the basic model and keep refining it. , the set Times New Roman Arial Courier New CS3339 Microsoft Excel Worksheet Worksheet Microsoft Office Excel Worksheet ECE462/562 ISA and Datapath Review Instruction Set Architecture MIPS arithmetic MIPS arithmetic Registers vs. , the control lines of MUXes and ALU in last slide –Is a function of? • Instruction words 10/7/2012 GC03 Mips Code Examples Some C Examples Assignment : int j = 10 ; // space must be allocated to variable j Possibility 1 : j is stored in a register, i. 00 store word. Mips Datapath for Instruction Load Upper Immediate lui || plus Ctrl , Implementing the  Chapter 5: The Processor: Datapath and Control. Sep 16, 2015 · Ajit Pal, IIT Kharagpur MIPS Datapath I: Single-Cycle Input is either register (R-type) or sign-extended lower half of instruction (load/store) Combining the datapaths for R-type instructions and load/stores using two multiplexors Data is either from ALU (R-type) or memory (load) 17. The datapath operates on 32_bit words of data, 16_bit half_words of data or 8_bit bytes of data. Inaccuracy of a port depending on the datapath element needed? Path implementation for condition is a datapath with mips is illustrated. The memory address is specified using a base/register pair. Otherwise they will be lost by the next clock cycle. Figure 5. Exploits the observation: many signals have few 1s or few 0s. Now for I format we have Load Word and Store Word. 0-25. —MIPS is a 32-bit machine, so most of the buses are 32-bits wide. sw  . Instr. x86: 1- to 17-byte instructions Few and regular instruction formats Can decode and read registers in one step Load/store addressing Can calculate address in 3rd stage, access memory in 4th stage Alignment of memory operands The MIPS processor is separated into five stages: instruction fetch, instruction decode, execution, data memory and write back. MIPS has (fortunately) only three different instruction formats. The following diagram shows the control states for a multicycle implementation of part of the MIPS instruction set. 3 Analyzing Performance of Single Cycle Datapath … instructions: load word, store word, and branch on equal. Data from memory written to register held in bits 20:16 MIPS ISA designed for pipelining ! All instructions are 32-bits ! Easier to fetch and decode in one cycle ! c. Combinational control Assignment: Datapath design and Control Unit design using SystemC. XXXXXX add. The fields in the MIPS instructions are the following: The datapath for a MIPS processor has five stages: 1. MIPS uses byte addressable It is used to store half of a word. Jump. store word mips datapath